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Sulphates
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Zinc Sulphate ( ZnSo4 )
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Alum – Ferric & Non Ferric
Ferous Sulphate
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Sulphuric Acid – ( H2SO4 )
Dilute Sulphuric Acid
Humic Acid
Chlorides
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Copper Carbonate
Bentonite
  Alum Ferric Non Ferric
 

Manufacturing Process:
Alum (Aluminum Sulphate) is manufactured by the reaction of  Alumina Hydrate and Bauxite with Sulphuric acid.
Bauxite is ground in the pulverizer to 90% passing through 200 mesh and elevated to Batch Hopper through Bucket Elevator. Measured quantity of water is to be taken into the Lead bonded reactor and slowly concentrated Sulphuric acid is to be added in the reactor. After getting the required temperature in the reactor, slowly the ground bauxite is added . After the addition of measured quantity of Bauxite/Alumina Hydrate, the Agitator is kept on for about 45 minutes then the solution is dumped into the settling tank.

The decanted solution of Aluminum Sulphate for the mixed process is then again taken to the Reactor and the required quantity of Sulphuric Acid is slowly added and after getting the temperature. The required quantity (as per the degree of solution) of Hydrated Alumina is slowly added keeping agitator rotating. After the addition of total quantity the Alum is molded in the trays with the help of tray filling arrangement. The slabs after cooling are to be taken out from the trays and stacked in the store.

The decanted solution for hot process is taken into the evaporator and the solution is concentrated to the required gravity and than molded in the trays for cooling.

 

What is Alum and how does it control Algae?
ALUM (aluminum sulfate) is a nontoxic material commonly used in water treatment plants to clarify drinking water. In lakes alum is used to control algae, not by killing the algal organisms, but by reducing the amount of the nutrient phosphorus in the water. Like most other plants, algae requires phosphorus to live and reproduce. Algal growth is usually limited by the amount of that mineral available in the water.

Phosphorus enters the water either externally, from run-off or ground water, or internally, from the nutrient rich sediments on the bottom of the lake. Phosphorus is released from the sediments under anoxic conditions that occur when the lake stratifies and oxygen is depleted from the lower layer.

Even when external sources of phosphorus have been curtailed by best management practices, the internal recycling of phosphorus can support explosive algal growth. Alum is used primarily to control this internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments of the lake bottom.
On contact with water, alum forms a fluffy aluminum hydroxide precipitate called floc. Aluminum hydroxide (the principle ingredient in common antacids such as Maalox) reacts with phosphorus to form an aluminum phosphate compound. This compound is insoluble in water under most conditions so the phosphorus in it can no longer be used as food by algae organisms.


As the floc slowly settles, some phosphorus is removed from the water. The floc also tends to collect suspended particles in the water and carry them down to the bottom, leaving the lake noticeably clearer.

 

On the bottom of the lake the floc forms a layer that acts as a phosphorus barrier by combining with phosphorus as it is released from the sediments. The floc is harmless to water creatures and aquatic plants. (Sorry, alum does not control rooted aquatic weeds.)

A sediment alum treatment can last up to ten years, depending on how much alum is applied, and lake conditions such as sedimentation rate and external phosphorus loading. Best results are obtained when steps are first taken to control the external sources of phosphorus . Some of these steps are simple, like encouraging the use of phosphorus free fertilizers and detergents or discouraging large flocks of waterfowl. More costly measures may be necessary such as installing a sewer system, building sedimentation impoundments, and diverting agricultural and urban run-off. Alum can also be used to treat water from a nutrient rich inlet before it enters the lake. Any of these best management practices that are in place before the alum treatment will improve its effectiveness and extend its life.

 

Uses of Alum

Alum has been part of our lives ever since the time of early Egyptians, who used it in dyeing and purification. Today, it is one of the most widely used and versatile industrial chemicals.

 

Most of the alum produced today is used in the pulp & paper industry as well as water and wastewater treatment. It is inexpensive and effective for a broad range of treatment problems because it can function as a coagulant, flocculants, precipitant and emulsion breaker. As a coagulant and flocculants, alum removes turbidity, suspended solids and colloidal color, reduces biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and clarifies potable, process and wastewater.
The main uses of alum are:
·         Water treatment: used as a coagulant to remove suspended solids and or some metals (e.g. Cr, Ba, Cu) from water (either drinking water or in waste treatment facilities)
·         Paper sizing: used as a rosin sizing control in paper production, affects the drainage of liquor from the paper
Other Major Uses
In addition to the primary uses in the pulp & papermaking industry and for water and wastewater treatment, alum is also used in:

  Alum Ferric Non Ferric - Micro-straining Alum Ferric Non Ferric-Watertreatmentplant
  Alum Ferric Non Ferric-Inorganic Contaminants Alum FerricNonFerric-Organic Contaminants
  ChemicalCompositionofFerricAlumnon-fericalum AlumFerricNonFerric-Controlalgae
  Alum Ferric Non Ferric-Manufacturin AlumFerricNonFerric-Usesofalum
 

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